A Perspective for a Communications Logo Design

A communicative image that which is remarkably unique and effectively communicates the ideas and ideologies of an organization in order to let the masses know of what they do and how it affects lives of billions across the globe. The more we observe our surrounding we understand that marketing has various weapons and images and intelligent designing is within the top 10 of the list. No one’s to blame, it’s our constant needs that lead to the evolution of products and new organizations, thus new symbols and merchandise material all over. But out of the variety, the one that stands out the most is always given a chance, even if their product isn’t worthy or effective. So what entices customers to take this initiative? 50% is the product and the idea behind it, whereas the remainder lies with ‘presentation’.


Designing is an art and with the times we live in, art is unique whereas designs aren’t. Somehow, even when a designer has researched all the possibilities around 10-15% is still found somewhere or the other. 90% of the times it’s not deliberate even though most critics online and offline would say simply that it’s a copy. This doesn’t mean that there aren’t designers out there who don’t copy, they most certainly do because the clients would always come up with a vision stating they want their logo to look like ‘this’ or like ‘that’. This is where the true battle lies, it’s more of a talent to steer them clear off their vision and concentrate on their own goals and mottos for their dedicated product. On the other hand designers with decades of experience would simply say ‘no’ to a copy vision and the client has to respect that because creating a unique and remarkable logo is the bread and butter for designers with immense experience.

To conclude monotony, hiring a professional designer would lead to the most memorable communications logo design, where they would know that portraying signals coming out of a box isn’t the only median to display communications instead, it could even depict 2 children communicating through a string with cans attached at each end.

Stop and Stare

The ultimate power of a communications logo design should be the ability to attract and make the masses stop and stare. No matter the color or typography, the heart of the design must be the image or the abstract image for that matter. The quality to entice the minds of many is a scarce talent, only the gifted few designers can pull this off. How far can a designer mold a product or specialization? If you are reading this as a designer, you would know that you tried your ultimate best and if you had more time you could probably make that one last change to a design to make it truly remarkable, but don’t belittle yourself, if it was designed from the heart, it’s just ‘perfect’.

7 Cs of Communication

According to the 7 Cs, communication needs to be:

1. Clear.
2. Concise.
3. Concrete.
4. Correct.
5. Coherent.
6. Complete.
7. Courteous.

In this article, we look at each of the 7 Cs of Communication, and we’ll illustrate each element with both good and bad examples.

1. Clear

When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message. What is your purpose in communicating with this person? If you’re not sure, then your audience won’t be sure either.

To be clear, try to minimize the number of ideas in each sentence. Make sure that it’s easy for your reader to understand your meaning. People shouldn’t have to “read between the lines” and make assumptions on their own to understand what you’re trying to say.

Bad Example

Hi John,

I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel, who’s working in your department. He’s a great asset, and I’d like to talk to you more about him when you have time.


What is this email about? Well, we’re not sure. First, if there are multiple Daniels in John’s department, John won’t know who Skip is talking about.

Good Example

Hi John,

I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel Kedar, who’s working in your department. In recent weeks, he’s helped the IT department through several pressing deadlines on his own time.

We’ve got a tough upgrade project due to run over the next three months, and his knowledge and skills would prove invaluable. Could we please have his help with this work?

I’d appreciate speaking with you about this. When is it best to call you to discuss this further?

Best wishes,

This second message is much clearer, because the reader has the information he needs to take action.

2. Concise

When you’re concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief. Your audience doesn’t want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in three.

• Are there any adjectives or “filler words” that you can delete? You can often eliminate words like “for instance,” “you see,” “definitely,” “kind of,” “literally,” “basically,” or “I mean.”
• Are there any unnecessary sentences?
• Have you repeated the point several times, in different ways?

Bad Example

Hi Matt,

I wanted to touch base with you about the email marketing campaign we kind of sketched out last Thursday. I really think that our target market is definitely going to want to see the company’s philanthropic efforts. I think that could make a big impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a sales pitch.

For instance, if we talk about the company’s efforts to become sustainable, as well as the charity work we’re doing in local schools, then the people that we want to attract are going to remember our message longer. The impact will just be greater.

What do you think?

This email is too long! There’s repetition, and there’s plenty of “filler” taking up space.

Good Example

Watch what happens when we’re concise and take out the filler words:

Hi Matt,

I wanted to quickly discuss the email marketing campaign that we analyzed last Thursday. Our target market will want to know about the company’s philanthropic efforts, especially our goals to become sustainable and help local schools.

This would make a far greater impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a traditional sales pitch.

What do you think?

3. Concrete

When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what you’re telling them. There are details (but not too many!) and vivid facts, and there’s laser-like focus. Your message is solid.

Bad Example

Consider this advertising copy:

The Lunchbox Wizard will save you time every day.

A statement like this probably won’t sell many of these products. There’s no passion, no vivid detail, nothing that creates emotion, and nothing that tells people in the audience why they should care. This message isn’t concrete enough to make a difference.

Good Example

How much time do you spend every day packing your kids’ lunches? No more! Just take a complete Lunchbox Wizard from your refrigerator each day to give your kids a healthy lunch and have more time to play or read with them!

This copy is better because there are vivid images. The audience can picture spending quality time with their kids – and what parent could argue with that? And mentioning that the product is stored in the refrigerator explains how the idea is practical. The message has come alive through these details.

4. Correct

When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also error-free communication.

• Do the technical terms you use fit your audience’s level of education or knowledge?

• Have you checked your writing for grammatical errors? Remember, spell checkers won’t catch everything.

• Are all names and titles spelled correctly?

Bad Example

Hi Daniel,

Thanks so much for meeting me at lunch today! I enjoyed our conservation, and I’m looking forward to moving ahead on our project. I’m sure that the two-weak deadline won’t be an issue.

Thanks again, and I’ll speak to you soon!

Jack Miller

If you read that example fast, then you might not have caught any errors. But on closer inspection, you’ll find two. Can you see them?

The first error is that the writer accidentally typed conservation instead of conversation. This common error can happen when you’re typing too fast. The other error is using weak instead of week.

Again, spell checkers won’t catch word errors like this, which is why it’s so important to proofread everything!

5. Coherent

When your communication is coherent, it’s logical. All points are connected and relevant to the main topic, and the tone and flow of the text is consistent.

Bad Example


I wanted to write you a quick note about the report you finished last week. I gave it to Michelle to proof, and she wanted to make sure you knew about the department meeting we’re having this Friday. We’ll be creating an outline for the new employee handbook.


As you can see, this email doesn’t communicate its point very well. Where is Michelle’s feedback on Traci’s report? She started to mention it, but then she changed the topic to Friday’s meeting.

Good Example

Hi Traci,

I wanted to write you a quick note about the report you finished last week. I gave it to Michelle to proof, and she let me know that there are a few changes that you’ll need to make. She’ll email you her detailed comments later this afternoon.


Notice that in the good example, Michelle does not mention Friday’s meeting. This is because the meeting reminder should be an entirely separate email. This way, Traci can delete the report feedback email after she makes her changes, but save the email about the meeting as her reminder to attend. Each email has only one main topic.

6. Complete

In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if applicable, take action.

• Does your message include a “call to action,” so that your audience clearly knows what you want them to do?
• Have you included all relevant information – contact names, dates, times, locations, and so on?

Bad Example

Hi everyone,

I just wanted to send you all a reminder about the meeting we’re having tomorrow!

See you then,

This message is not complete, for obvious reasons. What meeting? When is it? Where? Chris has left his team without the necessary information.

Good Example

Hi everyone,

I just wanted to remind you about tomorrow’s meeting on the new telecommuting policies. The meeting will be at 10:00 a.m. in the second-level conference room. Please let me know if you can’t attend.

See you then,

7. Courteous

Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest. There are no hidden insults or passive-aggressive tones. You keep your reader’s viewpoint in mind, and you’re empathetic to their needs.

Bad Example


I wanted to let you know that I don’t appreciate how your team always monopolizes the discussion at our weekly meetings. I have a lot of projects, and I really need time to get my team’s progress discussed as well. So far, thanks to your department, I haven’t been able to do that. Can you make sure they make time for me and my team next week?


Well, that’s hardly courteous! Messages like this can potentially start office-wide fights. And this email does nothing but create bad feelings, and lower productivity and morale. A little bit of courtesy, even in difficult situations, can go a long way.

Good Example

Hi Jeff,

I wanted to write you a quick note to ask a favor. During our weekly meetings, your team does an excellent job of highlighting their progress. But this uses some of the time available for my team to highlight theirs. I’d really appreciate it if you could give my team a little extra time each week to fully cover their progress reports.

Thanks so much, and please let me know if there’s anything I can do for you!


What a difference! This email is courteous and friendly, and it has little chance of spreading bad feelings around the office.

There are a few variations of the 7 Cs of Communication:

• Credible – Does your message improve or highlight your credibility? This is especially important when communicating with an audience that doesn’t know much about you.
• Creative – Does your message communicate creatively? Creative communication helps keep your audience engaged.

Silent Behavior Modification

When one thinks of sign language, he or she may think it is a language utilized only by the deaf or hard of hearing. Previously, parents had to wait until their child’s vocal chords developed in order to understand their needs and wants. Sign language enables children to communicate at a much earlier stage of development. With a recent newfound interest in the language, one must ask why it isn’t being utilized as a teaching strategy to help in the classroom?

Often times, a staff’s biggest challenge is student’s behavior throughout the day. Creativity can often be seen being replaced by a teacher who raises her volume to grab the attention of her stimulated students. As educator’s it is imperative that creative and new means are utilized in order to help ensure an environment that enables the children to thrive.

Sign language allows a teacher to accomplish this goal while engaging the children and teaching them something new and challenging. The first step is to introduce the language into the classroom. Whether it is through a hired staff member, or the teachers themselves taking the initiative to learn some of the basic signs and then pass the knowledge along. This can be done by going online. There are great websites available, where signs are modeled making it simple for everyone to learn, and words can be looked up the same as they would in a dictionary.

Students will enjoy being assigned animals. Allow the children to pick the animal they wish to be, or help them to establish a “sign name”. After this is done, help the children to practice and learn their new classmates sign. Another important sign is restroom. How many times is a teacher interrupted by the shouting of “Can I go to the potty”? Instead, the children can use their new language to ask to use the restroom, and the teacher can acknowledge giving permission without missing a beat. Another perk, are the signs stop and please.

Throughout the day re-direction is ongoing. Often times a teacher can grow weary of asking a child to discontinue with an action. Signing stop please or asking the child to move to another area, as well as, a quiet transition can be a nice change to what is often an over stimulated and non-responsive environment. Creativity in implementing this knowledge is imperative. If used and taught properly, one will quickly find that the need for the term to “use an inside voice” will soon disappear. It does not happen overnight, and each group of students brings a different dynamic to the table, but with time, patience, and perseverance this language opens a vast horizon of changing the atmosphere in one’s classroom.

Benefits of Using Calling Cards in Calling Abroad

Today, calling cards are popular to consumers who want to reach their loved ones abroad. No matter how far the distance is, they can talk to each other with just a few calls away. These cards are considered as a great alternative in the telecommunications world as they redefined the calling experience of each and every caller. In a world where there are constant changes in technology, these cards are able keep up with the telecommunication competition. The reasons why they exist in the market is because of a handful of exclusive features and cheap packages to offer to the public. Here are a lot of factors contributing as to why they are beneficial to consumers around the world:

    • They are cost-effective. Consumers need packages that offer per-minute calling charges and this is what these cards can bring. They pay the amount of money based only on what has been consumed unlike landlines where there are hidden charges and on-top fees every month. Typically, these cards have equivalent number of consumable talk-time minutes for callers to use. In this situation where all the prices of products are getting higher, this type of offer is ideal for consumers who are budget-conscious. They can reach their loved ones abroad at a reasonable cost.
    • People can get connected with each other 24/7. International Calling cards provide a quick and flexible way of reaching loved ones abroad anytime of the day, seven days a week. Callers just need to use any of the following: landlines, cellular phones, VoIP calls or payphones. Dial the number they want to call and that’s it. These cards are beneficial not only for overseas workers who are away from their families but also for business partners who do transactions in different countries. Indeed, these cards are useful for both personal and official work.
    • The account is refillable anytime. In a world where everything is reloadable in just a few clicks, calling cards are never left behind. Callers can reload the cards at participating stores or alternatively, they can reload the cards by using the internet. This is more convenient because all they need is to select the desired amount of credits and pay it using credit or debit cards and that’s it. But for those who feel that keying-in debit or credit card data online is unsafe and unsecure, they have the option to buy the refillable card in the store where they bought the initial card. No matter how users load the cards, what matters is that they are always connected with their family members and loved ones globally.
    • Users can do conference calls. One beauty of using calling cards is that callers can do conference calling. This feature is highly-beneficial especially for those who want to get connected with many people in a single call. It does not only save you time and money, it also provides effective communication among those who are involved in the call.
  • Ideal for travelling and vacation. Calling cards are one of the must-haves when going out of the country for travel or a vacation. Relatives and friends are easier to reach without the hassle of making long-distance calls using hotel landlines or payphones.

Up to now, calling cards still exist even with the advent of free calling services offered by different phone applications. Although applications that offer free calls have a clear advantage when it comes to cost-effectiveness, they still have restrictions when it comes to reaching people abroad.

Reliance offers global calling cards for Overseas Calling. Find all information about calling charges, international calling card, internet plans, roaming facilities, cheap prepaid phone card.

The Rise of Fibre Optic Cabling in Australia

Fibre optic cabling is a relatively new technology that is becoming more and more widely used around the world. There are many reason to this, mostly due to the many advantages that the technology has over its predecessor, the conventional copper wire option.

This is certainly true, where the National Broadband Network has meant thousands of jobs have been created for the purpose of installing a fibre optic network that covers the nation. Whilst certain regions of the country have been rapid in their adoption of this new technology, other areas are a little slower in their progress.

Regardless, the rise of fibre optic has been – and will continue to be – significant, due to its many advantages setting it apart from other options on the market today. This has led to new opportunities for those working in fibre splicing right through to users of the technology benefiting from revolutionized telecommunications systems.

One of the principal advantages of fibre optic is that it is far less expensive than the alternative metal wire option. This is one of the reasons why this has become so popular, not only with national providers of telecommunications networks but also with the consumer as well.

Indeed, lengths of fibre optic cabling can cost a fraction of the price of copper wire, although it can be argued that the installation and man power needed to put the systems in place is considerable. Regardless of this, an initial upfront cost of a significant amount can be offset by future savings for the national telecommunications company.

These cost savings can also be passed on to the consumer, who will have to bear a smaller cost of replacing this type of cabling should the need ever arrive. With much cheaper costs associated with fibre optic technology, it appears that everyone involved can benefit financially.

Another reason why this technology has grown in popularity is that it is far more efficient in several ways when compared to its predecessor. Fibre optic has the ability to carry high speed signals over larger distances than other wires, which makes it an excellent choice for data communications.

Furthermore, the thinness of these fibre optic cables means that more of them can be enclosed inside a cable than alternative wires, which economises greatly on space and can increase the amount of data being transmitted via any one cable.

Again, this can be beneficial for the consumer as well as for the provider installing this type of equipment. With less space used and higher efficiency, again, everyone is a winner with this new technology, which is a reason behind the adoption of the National Broadband Network initiative.

This has also lead to the creation of more jobs as consultants and fibre optic installation providers around the country, all catering to this need of national providers and consumers for this innovative new technology. With firms providing fibre splicing in areas around the country, there are more people working to fulfil this need than ever before.

It is also fair to say that when the initial fibre splicing in has been completed, these professionals will be required long afterwards to complete repair work and maintenance to these wires and cabling. This will ensure that fibre optic is not only relevant now, but also for many years in the foreseeable future.

Fibre optic has been on the rise for a while now, as indicated by the NBN project and the implantation of an upheaval of existing cabling systems. The outcome looks to be positive too, as this technology can bring a multitude of advantages to all parties involved.

Fibrecom Networks is a communications infrastructure solutions integrator specialising in fibre optic and structured cabling projects for medium to large scale environments. We can supply, install, test and commission all your Fibre, Data, CCTV, Audio Visual and Wireless Network cabling requirements. Servicing corporate, commercial, industrial and Government sectors across SE QLD and northern NSW regions, our mission is to provide professional communications solutions with excellent customer service. Fibrecom Networks is a registered “Security Provider” and all materials and labour comes with industry specific warranties as a guarantee of our commitment to providing quality services.

Internet Communication Is Bypassing Religious Leaders While Exposing the Truth

God is not the man on the cross and nor is it in some distant place where it can’t hear or see what goes on in the world. Some expect that it is the devil or something else that gives one disease or takes their life. They have never read or understood these words from Isaiah 45:4-8 that state clearly that God is one and there in no one else. It also notes that it creates light and makes darkness. It makes peace and creates evil. It alone does all these things, according to God’s word.

The burial of these words happened with the New Testament put up by Jerome after Constantine established the Roman Catholic Church in 325 AD. The aim was to bury the truth so that the word of the emperor would be the only thing people could hear. It worked as the decrees signed by him shows that all who did not fall into his line and who disobeyed his orders were murdered.

In today’s world we have instant communication with one another. We can speak to anyone anywhere in an instant and this is a great miracle. But there is a reason for it aside from making things easy for us to transmit messages. The Spirit of God is uncovering the roots of religious fraud and it has built the mountain of the Internet which has risen above all restraints and is without interference by critiques or religious tainted authorities and publishers.

The Spirit has used man to design a system whereby God can speak to the world. It is called Mt. Zion in Micah 4:1 and through it all truths are exposed.

5 Keys to Successful SIP Implementation

Are you an entrepreneur? Then you have to develop yourself technologically to stay in the tough competition and grow bigger. You need systems through which you can reach your customers easily, make deals and increase the sales. SIP trunk is such a system which is build to deliver power of VoIP in order to meet the needs of different departments of your organization. This system is more advanced than old systems like dial-up connections or ISDN. It is also user-friendly.

What is SIP Trunk- Benefits

SIP is the abbreviated form of Session Initiation Protocol. This protocol is installed in an organization so that voice or video calls throughout the business house can be done effectively without any hazards. In this protocol, the telephonic conversations are transformed into data and those are delivered by using private or public IP network. There are lots of advantage of installing these trunking services-

1. Installing SIP protocol is a lot more cost-effective than the other systems. You can save up to 60% and use the money to meet other needs of a business organization.

2. Maintenance of SIP trunks is very easy as it is mainly virtual rather than physical.

3. You can always stay connected to your customers. So, you can expect a healthy professional relationship with them to grow your business.

4. Video calls, video conferencing, instant messaging, etc. all can be done easily by this.

Successful SIP Implementation

Establishing successful communication among the departments of your business house and with the customers is now easy with SIP trunk, but while installing you should remember certain matters-

1. Native SIP-

Ask the provider whether their network can deliver SIP end-to-end and also ask about the size of the local telephone number footprint.

You should check out whether the provider is patching up other networks as those won’t serve your purpose due to poor quality and cause more trouble.

You should also ensure that you are not paying for non-native SIP solution as it requires additional equipment’s and cost you more. Those may not offer as good service as native SIP.

2. Plan for Future-

Don’t fall for anything before knowing the needs of future capacity.

Take your time before installing so that you can get the accurate bandwidth to get quality service.

Talk to your data provider to make sure that the LAN is applications and voice capable.

3. Check out the Features-

Today, SIP trunk comes with wide range of features. You should talk to the provider before paying for it. Not only voice call, but also make sure you get facilities like unified communications, video, messaging, and conferencing and lot more.

4. Breaking Barriers-

Installing SIP trunk will break the ice between the workers of separate departments of your organization. And to make an overall connectivity, you should ask your provider to design it efficiently.

5. Alert the Stakeholders-

While installing a new system you should make your employees aware about the changes. There is no use of installing a newly featured VoIP system if the end-users don’t get the maximum benefit of it.

Leased Line Services: Adding Values To Your Business

If you want to have a successful business, then you need to take care of several things. You have to take care of the company and at the same time you have to take care of the people working in it. There are several people working in the company and they need to get adequate salary and some incentives at the end of the year! To give away proper incentives, you need to earn more. To earn more you have to cut down the budget of your company and thus you need to look at the spending of your company properly. You can cut down the telecom budget in order to get more profit for your employees.

Lease line is something that a service provider offers you. You can get the service for a certain period of time. You get the line from the service provider in return of a certain amount of money, they also give you a 24X7 support, they will give away discounts, and they will also offer you some amazing packages! So you can go for such services. But when you opt for something, you must know that everything has some good and bad sides. So you need to know the good and bad side of this service as well!

Advantages of using Lease lines:

• You can get a huge amount of data in return of a sound amount of money. You will get an amazing range of 64 kbps to 622 MBPS data! Isn’t that amazing? This is the magic of such services. Though the price is quite heavy but if you are having the data for a longer period of time, you will get amazing discounts and different facilities from your service provider.

• You can get attached to the other end users through lease lines. So you can send and receive data within your group for free and that too within some minutes! That much easy the thing is! You can send the data to the desired person and can have the data from them without any delay. In this type of service no data is missed. That means you will get the exact data sent by your client!
Disadvantages of using Lease Lines:

• As you are an end user, your data is not safe! Well, others may not intrude into your data, but the service provider can! Whatever you have sent to your client went through the service provider. So you are open to the person totally while using lease line! Your bidding amount, signing amount is not that safe in this mode!

• If you face any type of problems regarding the lease line connection, you will not be able to contact any service provider of your locality! You have to contact them to check and repair the line.

• Changing the setting of the service is not in your hands! You have to depend on the experts from the service station of the company. They will change the setting, so you need to wait for them in order to get the thing done.

Tips To Create A Great Whatsapp Status

Whatsapp is a messenger application that has become very popular not just amongst youngsters but also amongst adults because it makes it easy for people to chat and keep in touch. Perhaps the major reason as to why this mobile platform is loved is because messages can be exchanged across all operating systems and all mobile phones. It is also a platform that uses the normal data plan for email and browsing the internet and therefore does not add any extra costs to chat, share videos and audio messages with friends and family.

Your Whatsapp status is very important because it easily tells your friends what is on your mind or your mood. You can actually use the status to let people know how you are feeling without talking to them. Those in your list of contacts will frequently be checking your status and your profile photo and they therefore can tell exactly what is going on in your life. It is good to have a cool status, but you also should pay attention to what you are posting, however free you are to post anything on your profile.

Be clear and concise – Short but clear messages can be lovely because they are easy for people to understand what your feelings are. Short statuses are loved because they do not take much time of whoever comes across them. Think about what you want to say and find a sentence that can summarize it so you do not end up writing a story.

Keep your readers guessing – Another way of achieving a great status is to keep the status twisted in such a way that readers are not too sure what you could be saying. A status sentence that has a deeper meaning that is not that easy to unveil can keep your friends wondering what you could be talking about or what you are up to. You can be as creative as you want to be when creating such a status to keep the interest and suspense of your circle of friends.

Use inspirational messages – They are great because they actually can work as a motivator to contacts who could be feeling low or sad about an aspect of life. You can choose sayings that have deep meanings or come up with your own creation of a message that is bound to inspire others. You can never know how many situations you can change for others when you select a meaningful status.

Vent but don’t mention any names – Unless you are writing a positive status dedicated to a person you want to appreciate, avoid mentioning names. It is okay to be mad and angry at someone, but quite another when you put it across for everyone else to see. Find a friendly way of venting your anger without compromising the identity of the other person. You should actually think twice about hurling insults at a specific person using your status. It’s good to keep things civil and find ways of settling the situation directly with the person involved.

With the Whatsapp platform now very popular, you can easily find great Whatsapp status [http://whatsapp-status.co.in/] to put on your profile online. You can go through the best statuses listed and possibly add or choose one to put on your status or simply enjoy a good read.


Analog-To-Digital and Digital-To-Analog Conversion

In order for analog devices (e.g., speakers, temperature sensors, strain gauges, position sensors, light meters, etc.) to communicate with digital circuits in a manner that goes beyond simple threshold triggering, we use an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). An ADC converts an analog signal into a series of binary numbers, each number being proportional to the analog level measured at a given moment. Typically, the digital words generated by the ADC are fed into a microprocessor or micro controller, where they can be processed, stored, interpreted, and manipulated. Analog-to-digital conversion is used in data-acquisition systems, digital sound recording, and within simple digital display test instruments (e.g., light meters, thermometers, etc.).

In order for a digital circuit to communicate with the analog world, we use a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). A DAC takes a number and converts it to an analog voltage that is proportional to the number. By supplying different numbers, one after the other, a complete analog waveform is created. DACs are commonly used to control the gain of an op amp, which in turn can be used to create digitally controlled amplifiers and filters. They are also used in waveform generator and modulator circuits and as trimmer replacements and are found in a number of process-control and auto calibration circuits. the ADC receives an analog input signal along with a series of digital sampling pulses.

Each time a sampling pulse is received, the ADC measures the analog input voltage and outputs a 4-bit that is proportional to the analog voltage measured during the specific sample. With 4 bits, we get 16 binary codes (0000 to 1111) that correspond to 16 possible analog levels (e.g., 0 to 15 V). In the digital-to-analog conversion figure, the DAC receives a series of 4-bit. The rate at which new binary numbers are fed into the DAC is determined by the logic that generates them. With each new binary, a new analog voltage is generated.

As with the ADC example, we have a total of 16 numbers to work with and 16 possible output voltages. As you can see from the graphs, both these 4-bit converters lack the resolution needed to make the analog signal appear continuous (without steps). To make things appear more continuous, a converter with higher resolution is used. This means that instead of using 4-bit binary numbers, we use larger-bit numbers, such as 6-bit, 8-bit, 10-bit, 12-bit, 16-bit, or even 18-bit numbers. If our converter has a resolution of 8 bits, we have 28 = 256 binary number to work with, along with 256 analog steps. Now, if this 8-bit converter is set up to generate 0 V at binary 00000000 and 15 V at binary 11111111 (full-scale), then each analog step is only 0.058 V high (1⁄256 × 15 V). With an 18-bit converter, the steps get incredibly tiny because we have 218 = 262,144 binary numbers and steps. With 0 V corresponding to binary 000000000000000000 and 15 V corresponding to 111111111111111111, the 18-bit converter yields steps that are only 0.000058 V high! As you can see in the 18-bit case, the conversion process between digital and analog appears practically continuous.